Pipelines

Spack provides commands that support generating and running automated build pipelines designed for Gitlab CI. At the highest level it works like this: provide a spack environment describing the set of packages you care about, and include within that environment file a description of how those packages should be mapped to Gitlab runners. Spack can then generate a .gitlab-ci.yml file containing job descriptions for all your packages that can be run by a properly configured Gitlab CI instance. When run, the generated pipeline will build and deploy binaries, and it can optionally report to a CDash instance regarding the health of the builds as they evolve over time.

Getting started with pipelines

It is fairly straightforward to get started with automated build pipelines. At a minimum, you’ll need to set up a Gitlab instance (more about Gitlab CI here) and configure at least one runner. Then the basic steps for setting up a build pipeline are as follows:

  1. Create a repository on your gitlab instance

  2. Add a spack.yaml at the root containing your pipeline environment

  3. Add a .gitlab-ci.yml at the root containing two jobs (one to generate the pipeline dynamically, and one to run the generated jobs).

  4. Push a commit containing the spack.yaml and .gitlab-ci.yml mentioned above to the gitlab repository

See the Functional Example section for a minimal working example. See also the Custom Workflow section for a link to an example of a custom workflow based on spack pipelines.

While it is possible to set up pipelines on gitlab.com, as illustrated above, the builds there are limited to 60 minutes and generic hardware. It is also possible to hook up Gitlab to Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE) or Amazon Elastic Kubernetes Service (EKS), though those topics are outside the scope of this document.

Spack’s pipelines are now making use of the trigger syntax to run dynamically generated child pipelines. Note that the use of dynamic child pipelines requires running Gitlab version >= 12.9.

Functional Example

The simplest fully functional standalone example of a working pipeline can be examined live at this example project on gitlab.com.

Here’s the .gitlab-ci.yml file from that example that builds and runs the pipeline:

stages: [generate, build]

variables:
  SPACK_REPO: https://github.com/scottwittenburg/spack.git
  SPACK_REF: pipelines-reproducible-builds

generate-pipeline:
  stage: generate
  tags:
    - docker
  image:
    name: ghcr.io/scottwittenburg/ecpe4s-ubuntu18.04-runner-x86_64:2020-09-01
    entrypoint: [""]
  before_script:
    - git clone ${SPACK_REPO}
    - pushd spack && git checkout ${SPACK_REF} && popd
    - . "./spack/share/spack/setup-env.sh"
  script:
    - spack env activate --without-view .
    - spack -d ci generate
      --artifacts-root "${CI_PROJECT_DIR}/jobs_scratch_dir"
      --output-file "${CI_PROJECT_DIR}/jobs_scratch_dir/pipeline.yml"
  artifacts:
    paths:
      - "${CI_PROJECT_DIR}/jobs_scratch_dir"

build-jobs:
  stage: build
  trigger:
    include:
      - artifact: "jobs_scratch_dir/pipeline.yml"
        job: generate-pipeline
    strategy: depend

The key thing to note above is that there are two jobs: The first job to run, generate-pipeline, runs the spack ci generate command to generate a dynamic child pipeline and write it to a yaml file, which is then picked up by the second job, build-jobs, and used to trigger the downstream pipeline.

And here’s the spack environment built by the pipeline represented as a spack.yaml file:

spack:
  view: false
  concretization: separately

  definitions:
  - pkgs:
    - zlib
    - bzip2
  - arch:
    - '%gcc@7.5.0 arch=linux-ubuntu18.04-x86_64'

  specs:
  - matrix:
    - - $pkgs
    - - $arch

  mirrors: { "mirror": "s3://spack-public/mirror" }

  gitlab-ci:
    before_script:
      - git clone ${SPACK_REPO}
      - pushd spack && git checkout ${SPACK_CHECKOUT_VERSION} && popd
      - . "./spack/share/spack/setup-env.sh"
    script:
      - pushd ${SPACK_CONCRETE_ENV_DIR} && spack env activate --without-view . && popd
      - spack -d ci rebuild
    mappings:
      - match: ["os=ubuntu18.04"]
        runner-attributes:
          image:
            name: ghcr.io/scottwittenburg/ecpe4s-ubuntu18.04-runner-x86_64:2020-09-01
            entrypoint: [""]
          tags:
            - docker
    enable-artifacts-buildcache: True
    rebuild-index: False

The elements of this file important to spack ci pipelines are described in more detail below, but there are a couple of things to note about the above working example:

Normally enable-artifacts-buildcache is not recommended in production as it results in large binary artifacts getting transferred back and forth between gitlab and the runners. But in this example on gitlab.com where there is no shared, persistent file system, and where no secrets are stored for giving permission to write to an S3 bucket, enabled-buildcache-artifacts is the only way to propagate binaries from jobs to their dependents.

Also, it is usually a good idea to let the pipeline generate a final “rebuild the buildcache index” job, so that subsequent pipeline generation can quickly determine which specs are up to date and which need to be rebuilt (it’s a good idea for other reasons as well, but those are out of scope for this discussion). In this case we have disabled it (using rebuild-index: False) because the index would only be generated in the artifacts mirror anyway, and consequently would not be available during subesequent pipeline runs.

Note

With the addition of reproducible builds (#22887) a previously working pipeline will require some changes:

  • In the build jobs (runner-attributes), the environment location changed. This will typically show as a KeyError in the failing job. Be sure to point to ${SPACK_CONCRETE_ENV_DIR}.

  • When using include in your environment, be sure to make the included files available in the build jobs. This means adding those files to the artifact directory. Those files will also be missing in the reproducibility artifact.

  • Because the location of the environment changed, including files with relative path may have to be adapted to work both in the project context (generation job) and in the concrete env dir context (build job).

Spack commands supporting pipelines

Spack provides a ci command with a few sub-commands supporting spack ci pipelines. These commands are covered in more detail in this section.

spack ci

Super-command for functionality related to generating pipelines and executing pipeline jobs.

spack ci generate

Concretizes the specs in the active environment, stages them (as described in Summary of .gitlab-ci.yml generation algorithm), and writes the resulting .gitlab-ci.yml to disk. During concretization of the environment, spack ci generate also writes a spack.lock file which is then provided to generated child jobs and made available in all generated job artifacts to aid in reproducing failed builds in a local environment. This means there are two artifacts that need to be exported in your pipeline generation job (defined in your .gitlab-ci.yml). The first is the output yaml file of spack ci generate, and the other is the directory containing the concrete environment files. In the Functional Example section, we only mentioned one path in the artifacts paths list because we used --artifacts-root as the top level directory containing both the generated pipeline yaml and the concrete environment.

Using --prune-dag or --no-prune-dag configures whether or not jobs are generated for specs that are already up to date on the mirror. If enabling DAG pruning using --prune-dag, more information may be required in your spack.yaml file, see the Note about “no-op” jobs section below regarding service-job-attributes.

The optional --check-index-only argument can be used to speed up pipeline generation by telling spack to consider only remote buildcache indices when checking the remote mirror to determine if each spec in the DAG is up to date or not. The default behavior is for spack to fetch the index and check it, but if the spec is not found in the index, to also perform a direct check for the spec on the mirror. If the remote buildcache index is out of date, which can easily happen if it is not updated frequently, this behavior ensures that spack has a way to know for certain about the status of any concrete spec on the remote mirror, but can slow down pipeline generation significantly.

The --optimize argument is experimental and runs the generated pipeline document through a series of optimization passes designed to reduce the size of the generated file.

The --dependencies is also experimental and disables what in Gitlab is referred to as DAG scheduling, internally using the dependencies keyword rather than needs to list dependency jobs. The drawback of using this option is that before any job can begin, all jobs in previous stages must first complete. The benefit is that Gitlab allows more dependencies to be listed when using dependencies instead of needs.

The optional --output-file argument should be an absolute path (including file name) to the generated pipeline, and if not given, the default is ./.gitlab-ci.yml.

While optional, the --artifacts-root argument is used to determine where the concretized environment directory should be located. This directory will be created by spack ci generate and will contain the spack.yaml and generated spack.lock which are then passed to all child jobs as an artifact. This directory will also be the root directory for all artifacts generated by jobs in the pipeline.

spack ci rebuild

The purpose of the spack ci rebuild is straightforward: take its assigned spec job, check whether the target mirror already has a binary for that spec, and if not, build the spec from source and push the binary to the mirror. To accomplish this in a reproducible way, the sub-command prepares a spack install command line to build a single spec in the DAG, saves that command in a shell script, install.sh, in the current working directory, and then runs it to install the spec. The shell script is also exported as an artifact to aid in reproducing the build outside of the CI environment.

If it was necessary to install the spec from source, spack ci rebuild will also subsequently create a binary package for the spec and try to push it to the mirror.

The spack ci rebuild sub-command mainly expects its “input” to come either from environment variables or from the gitlab-ci section of the spack.yaml environment file. There are two main sources of the environment variables, some are written into .gitlab-ci.yml by spack ci generate, and some are provided by the GitLab CI runtime.

spack ci rebuild-index

This is a convenience command to rebuild the buildcache index associated with the mirror in the active, gitlab-enabled environment (specifying the mirror url or name is not required).

spack ci reproduce-build

Given the url to a gitlab pipeline rebuild job, downloads and unzips the artifacts into a local directory (which can be specified with the optional --working-dir argument), then finds the target job in the generated pipeline to extract details about how it was run. Assuming the job used a docker image, the command prints a docker run command line and some basic instructions on how to reproduce the build locally.

Note that jobs failing in the pipeline will print messages giving the arguments you can pass to spack ci reproduce-build in order to reproduce a particular build locally.

A pipeline-enabled spack environment

Here’s an example of a spack environment file that has been enhanced with sections describing a build pipeline:

spack:
  definitions:
  - pkgs:
    - readline@7.0
  - compilers:
    - '%gcc@5.5.0'
  - oses:
    - os=ubuntu18.04
    - os=centos7
  specs:
  - matrix:
    - [$pkgs]
    - [$compilers]
    - [$oses]
  mirrors:
    cloud_gitlab: https://mirror.spack.io
  gitlab-ci:
    mappings:
      - match:
          - os=ubuntu18.04
        runner-attributes:
          tags:
            - spack-kube
          image: spack/ubuntu-bionic
      - match:
          - os=centos7
        runner-attributes:
          tags:
            - spack-kube
          image: spack/centos7
  cdash:
    build-group: Release Testing
    url: https://cdash.spack.io
    project: Spack
    site: Spack AWS Gitlab Instance

Hopefully, the definitions, specs, mirrors, etc. sections are already familiar, as they are part of spack Environments. So let’s take a more in-depth look some of the pipeline-related sections in that environment file that might not be as familiar.

The gitlab-ci section is used to configure how the pipeline workload should be generated, mainly how the jobs for building specs should be assigned to the configured runners on your instance. Each entry within the list of mappings corresponds to a known gitlab runner, where the match section is used in assigning a release spec to one of the runners, and the runner-attributes section is used to configure the spec/job for that particular runner.

Both the top-level gitlab-ci section as well as each runner-attributes section can also contain the following keys: image, tags, variables, before_script, script, and after_script. If any of these keys are provided at the gitlab-ci level, they will be used as the defaults for any runner-attributes, unless they are overridden in those sections. Specifying any of these keys at the runner-attributes level generally overrides the keys specified at the higher level, with a couple exceptions. Any variables specified at both levels result in those dictionaries getting merged in the resulting generated job, and any duplicate variable names get assigned the value provided in the specific runner-attributes. If tags are specified both at the gitlab-ci level as well as the runner-attributes level, then the lists of tags are combined, and any duplicates are removed.

See the section below on using a custom spack for an example of how these keys could be used.

There are other pipeline options you can configure within the gitlab-ci section as well.

The bootstrap section allows you to specify lists of specs from your definitions that should be staged ahead of the environment’s specs (this section is described in more detail below). The enable-artifacts-buildcache key takes a boolean and determines whether the pipeline uses artifacts to store and pass along the buildcaches from one stage to the next (the default if you don’t provide this option is False).

The optional broken-specs-url key tells Spack to check against a list of specs that are known to be currently broken in develop. If any such specs are found, the spack ci generate command will fail with an error message informing the user what broken specs were encountered. This allows the pipeline to fail early and avoid wasting compute resources attempting to build packages that will not succeed.

The optional cdash section provides information that will be used by the spack ci generate command (invoked by spack ci start) for reporting to CDash. All the jobs generated from this environment will belong to a “build group” within CDash that can be tracked over time. As the release progresses, this build group may have jobs added or removed. The url, project, and site are used to specify the CDash instance to which build results should be reported.

Take a look at the schema for the gitlab-ci section of the spack environment file, to see precisely what syntax is allowed there.

Note about rebuilding buildcache index

By default, while a pipeline job may rebuild a package, create a buildcache entry, and push it to the mirror, it does not automatically re-generate the mirror’s buildcache index afterward. Because the index is not needed by the default rebuild jobs in the pipeline, not updating the index at the end of each job avoids possible race conditions between simultaneous jobs, and it avoids the computational expense of regenerating the index. This potentially saves minutes per job, depending on the number of binary packages in the mirror. As a result, the default is that the mirror’s buildcache index may not correctly reflect the mirror’s contents at the end of a pipeline.

To make sure the buildcache index is up to date at the end of your pipeline, spack generates a job to update the buildcache index of the target mirror at the end of each pipeline by default. You can disable this behavior by adding rebuild-index: False inside the gitlab-ci section of your spack environment. Spack will assign the job any runner attributes found on the service-job-attributes, if you have provided that in your spack.yaml.

Note about “no-op” jobs

If no specs in an environment need to be rebuilt during a given pipeline run (meaning all are already up to date on the mirror), a single succesful job (a NO-OP) is still generated to avoid an empty pipeline (which GitLab considers to be an error). An optional service-job-attributes section can be added to your spack.yaml where you can provide tags and image or variables for the generated NO-OP job. This section also supports providing before_script, script, and after_script, in case you want to take some custom actions in the case of any empty pipeline.

Following is an example of this section added to a spack.yaml:

spack:
  specs:
    - openmpi
  mirrors:
    cloud_gitlab: https://mirror.spack.io
  gitlab-ci:
    mappings:
      - match:
          - os=centos8
        runner-attributes:
          tags:
            - custom
            - tag
          image: spack/centos7
    service-job-attributes:
      tags: ['custom', 'tag']
      image:
        name: 'some.image.registry/custom-image:latest'
        entrypoint: ['/bin/bash']
      script:
        - echo "Custom message in a custom script"

The example above illustrates how you can provide the attributes used to run the NO-OP job in the case of an empty pipeline. The only field for the NO-OP job that might be generated for you is script, but that will only happen if you do not provide one yourself.

Assignment of specs to runners

The mappings section corresponds to a list of runners, and during assignment of specs to runners, the list is traversed in order looking for matches, the first runner that matches a release spec is assigned to build that spec. The match section within each runner mapping section is a list of specs, and if any of those specs match the release spec (the spec.satisfies() method is used), then that runner is considered a match.

Configuration of specs/jobs for a runner

Once a runner has been chosen to build a release spec, the runner-attributes section provides information determining details of the job in the context of the runner. The runner-attributes section must have a tags key, which is a list containing at least one tag used to select the runner from among the runners known to the gitlab instance. For Docker executor type runners, the image key is used to specify the Docker image used to build the release spec (and could also appear as a dictionary with a name specifying the image name, as well as an entrypoint to override whatever the default for that image is). For other types of runners the variables key will be useful to pass any information on to the runner that it needs to do its work (e.g. scheduler parameters, etc.). Any variables provided here will be added, verbatim, to each job.

The runner-attributes section also allows users to supply custom script, before_script, and after_script sections to be applied to every job scheduled on that runner. This allows users to do any custom preparation or cleanup tasks that fit their particular workflow, as well as completely customize the rebuilding of a spec if they so choose. Spack will not generate a before_script or after_script for jobs, but if you do not provide a custom script, spack will generate one for you that assumes the concrete environment directory is located within your --artifacts_root (or if not provided, within your $CI_PROJECT_DIR), activates that environment for you, and invokes spack ci rebuild.

Summary of .gitlab-ci.yml generation algorithm

All specs yielded by the matrix (or all the specs in the environment) have their dependencies computed, and the entire resulting set of specs are staged together before being run through the gitlab-ci/mappings entries, where each staged spec is assigned a runner. “Staging” is the name given to the process of figuring out in what order the specs should be built, taking into consideration Gitlab CI rules about jobs/stages. In the staging process the goal is to maximize the number of jobs in any stage of the pipeline, while ensuring that the jobs in any stage only depend on jobs in previous stages (since those jobs are guaranteed to have completed already). As a runner is determined for a job, the information in the runner-attributes is used to populate various parts of the job description that will be used by Gitlab CI. Once all the jobs have been assigned a runner, the .gitlab-ci.yml is written to disk.

The short example provided above would result in the readline, ncurses, and pkgconf packages getting staged and built on the runner chosen by the spack-k8s tag. In this example, spack assumes the runner is a Docker executor type runner, and thus certain jobs will be run in the centos7 container, and others in the ubuntu-18.04 container. The resulting .gitlab-ci.yml will contain 6 jobs in three stages. Once the jobs have been generated, the presence of a SPACK_CDASH_AUTH_TOKEN environment variable during the spack ci generate command would result in all of the jobs being put in a build group on CDash called “Release Testing” (that group will be created if it didn’t already exist).

Optional compiler bootstrapping

Spack pipelines also have support for bootstrapping compilers on systems that may not already have the desired compilers installed. The idea here is that you can specify a list of things to bootstrap in your definitions, and spack will guarantee those will be installed in a phase of the pipeline before your release specs, so that you can rely on those packages being available in the binary mirror when you need them later on in the pipeline. At the moment the only viable use-case for bootstrapping is to install compilers.

Here’s an example of what bootstrapping some compilers might look like:

spack:
  definitions:
  - compiler-pkgs:
    - 'llvm+clang@6.0.1 os=centos7'
    - 'gcc@6.5.0 os=centos7'
    - 'llvm+clang@6.0.1 os=ubuntu18.04'
    - 'gcc@6.5.0 os=ubuntu18.04'
  - pkgs:
    - readline@7.0
  - compilers:
    - '%gcc@5.5.0'
    - '%gcc@6.5.0'
    - '%gcc@7.3.0'
    - '%clang@6.0.0'
    - '%clang@6.0.1'
  - oses:
    - os=ubuntu18.04
    - os=centos7
  specs:
  - matrix:
    - [$pkgs]
    - [$compilers]
    - [$oses]
    exclude:
      - '%gcc@7.3.0 os=centos7'
      - '%gcc@5.5.0 os=ubuntu18.04'
  gitlab-ci:
    bootstrap:
      - name: compiler-pkgs
        compiler-agnostic: true
    mappings:
      # mappings similar to the example higher up in this description
      ...

The example above adds a list to the definitions called compiler-pkgs (you can add any number of these), which lists compiler packages that should be staged ahead of the full matrix of release specs (in this example, only readline). Then within the gitlab-ci section, note the addition of a bootstrap section, which can contain a list of items, each referring to a list in the definitions section. These items can either be a dictionary or a string. If you supply a dictionary, it must have a name key whose value must match one of the lists in definitions and it can have a compiler-agnostic key whose value is a boolean. If you supply a string, then it needs to match one of the lists provided in definitions. You can think of the bootstrap list as an ordered list of pipeline “phases” that will be staged before your actual release specs. While this introduces another layer of bottleneck in the pipeline (all jobs in all stages of one phase must complete before any jobs in the next phase can begin), it also means you are guaranteed your bootstrapped compilers will be available when you need them.

The compiler-agnostic key can be provided with each item in the bootstrap list. It tells the spack ci generate command that any jobs staged from that particular list should have the compiler removed from the spec, so that any compiler available on the runner where the job is run can be used to build the package.

When including a bootstrapping phase as in the example above, the result is that the bootstrapped compiler packages will be pushed to the binary mirror (and the local artifacts mirror) before the actual release specs are built. In this case, the jobs corresponding to subsequent release specs are configured to install_missing_compilers, so that if spack is asked to install a package with a compiler it doesn’t know about, it can be quickly installed from the binary mirror first.

Since bootstrapping compilers is optional, those items can be left out of the environment/stack file, and in that case no bootstrapping will be done (only the specs will be staged for building) and the runners will be expected to already have all needed compilers installed and configured for spack to use.

Using a custom spack in your pipeline

If your runners will not have a version of spack ready to invoke, or if for some other reason you want to use a custom version of spack to run your pipelines, this section provides an example of how you could take advantage of user-provided pipeline scripts to accomplish this fairly simply. First, consider specifying the source and version of spack you want to use with variables, either written directly into your .gitlab-ci.yml, or provided by CI variables defined in the gitlab UI or from some upstream pipeline. Let’s say you choose the variable names SPACK_REPO and SPACK_REF to refer to the particular fork of spack and branch you want for running your pipeline. You can then refer to those in a custom shell script invoked both from your pipeline generation job and your rebuild jobs. Here’s the generate-pipeline job from the top of this document, updated to clone and source a custom spack:

generate-pipeline:
  tags:
    - <some-other-tag>
before_script:
  - git clone ${SPACK_REPO}
  - pushd spack && git checkout ${SPACK_REF} && popd
  - . "./spack/share/spack/setup-env.sh"
script:
  - spack env activate --without-view .
  - spack ci generate --check-index-only
    --artifacts-root "${CI_PROJECT_DIR}/jobs_scratch_dir"
    --output-file "${CI_PROJECT_DIR}/jobs_scratch_dir/pipeline.yml"
after_script:
  - rm -rf ./spack
artifacts:
  paths:
    - "${CI_PROJECT_DIR}/jobs_scratch_dir"

That takes care of getting the desired version of spack when your pipeline is generated by spack ci generate. You also want your generated rebuild jobs (all of them) to clone that version of spack, so next you would update your spack.yaml from above as follows:

spack:
  ...
  gitlab-ci:
    mappings:
      - match:
          - os=ubuntu18.04
        runner-attributes:
          tags:
            - spack-kube
          image: spack/ubuntu-bionic
          before_script:
            - git clone ${SPACK_REPO}
            - pushd spack && git checkout ${SPACK_REF} && popd
            - . "./spack/share/spack/setup-env.sh"
          script:
            - spack env activate --without-view ${SPACK_CONCRETE_ENV_DIR}
            - spack -d ci rebuild
          after_script:
            - rm -rf ./spack

Now all of the generated rebuild jobs will use the same shell script to clone spack before running their actual workload.

Now imagine you have long pipelines with many specs to be built, and you are pointing to a spack repository and branch that has a tendency to change frequently, such as the main repo and its develop branch. If each child job checks out the develop branch, that could result in some jobs running with one SHA of spack, while later jobs run with another. To help avoid this issue, the pipeline generation process saves global variables called SPACK_VERSION and SPACK_CHECKOUT_VERSION that capture the version of spack used to generate the pipeline. While the SPACK_VERSION variable simply contains the human-readable value produced by spack -V at pipeline generation time, the SPACK_CHECKOUT_VERSION variable can be used in a git checkout command to make sure all child jobs checkout the same version of spack used to generate the pipeline. To take advantage of this, you could simply replace git checkout ${SPACK_REF} in the example spack.yaml above with git checkout ${SPACK_CHECKOUT_VERSION}.

On the other hand, if you’re pointing to a spack repository and branch under your control, there may be no benefit in using the captured SPACK_CHECKOUT_VERSION, and you can instead just clone using the variables you define (SPACK_REPO and SPACK_REF in the example aboves).

Custom Workflow

There are many ways to take advantage of spack CI pipelines to achieve custom workflows for building packages or other resources. One example of a custom pipelines workflow is the spack tutorial container repo. This project uses GitHub (for source control), GitLab (for automated spack ci pipelines), and DockerHub automated builds to build Docker images (complete with fully populate binary mirror) used by instructors and participants of a spack tutorial.

Take a look a the repo to see how it is accomplished using spack CI pipelines, and see the following markdown files at the root of the repository for descriptions and documentation describing the workflow: DESCRIPTION.md, DOCKERHUB_SETUP.md, GITLAB_SETUP.md, and UPDATING.md.

Environment variables affecting pipeline operation

Certain secrets and some other information should be provided to the pipeline infrastructure via environment variables, usually for reasons of security, but in some cases to support other pipeline use cases such as PR testing. The environment variables used by the pipeline infrastructure are described here.

AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID

Optional. Only needed when binary mirror is an S3 bucket.

AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY

Optional. Only needed when binary mirror is an S3 bucket.

S3_ENDPOINT_URL

Optional. Only needed when binary mirror is an S3 bucket that is not on AWS.

CDASH_AUTH_TOKEN

Optional. Only needed in order to report build groups to CDash.

SPACK_SIGNING_KEY

Optional. Only needed if you want spack ci rebuild to trust the key you store in this variable, in which case, it will subsequently be used to sign and verify binary packages (when installing or creating buildcaches). You could also have already trusted a key spack know about, or if no key is present anywhere, spack will install specs using --no-check-signature and create buildcaches using -u (for unsigned binaries).