Source code for spack.stage

# Copyright 2013-2022 Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC and other
# Spack Project Developers. See the top-level COPYRIGHT file for details.
# SPDX-License-Identifier: (Apache-2.0 OR MIT)

from __future__ import print_function

import errno
import getpass
import glob
import hashlib
import os
import shutil
import stat
import sys
import tempfile
from typing import Dict  # novm

from six import iteritems, string_types

import llnl.util.lang
import llnl.util.tty as tty
from llnl.util.filesystem import (

import spack.caches
import spack.config
import spack.error
import spack.fetch_strategy as fs
import spack.mirror
import spack.paths
import spack.util.lock
import spack.util.path as sup
import spack.util.pattern as pattern
import spack.util.url as url_util
from spack.util.crypto import bit_length, prefix_bits

# The well-known stage source subdirectory name.
_source_path_subdir = 'spack-src'

# The temporary stage name prefix.
stage_prefix = 'spack-stage-'

[docs]def create_stage_root(path): # type: (str) -> None """Create the stage root directory and ensure appropriate access perms.""" assert os.path.isabs(path) and len(path.strip()) > 1 err_msg = 'Cannot create stage root {0}: Access to {1} is denied' user_uid = getuid() # Obtain lists of ancestor and descendant paths of the $user node, if any. group_paths, user_node, user_paths = partition_path(path, getpass.getuser()) for p in group_paths: if not os.path.exists(p): # Ensure access controls of subdirs created above `$user` inherit # from the parent and share the group. par_stat = os.stat(os.path.dirname(p)) mkdirp(p, group=par_stat.st_gid, mode=par_stat.st_mode) p_stat = os.stat(p) if par_stat.st_gid != p_stat.st_gid: tty.warn("Expected {0} to have group {1}, but it is {2}" .format(p, par_stat.st_gid, p_stat.st_gid)) if par_stat.st_mode & p_stat.st_mode != par_stat.st_mode: tty.warn("Expected {0} to support mode {1}, but it is {2}" .format(p, par_stat.st_mode, p_stat.st_mode)) if not can_access(p): raise OSError(errno.EACCES, err_msg.format(path, p)) # Add the path ending with the $user node to the user paths to ensure paths # from $user (on down) meet the ownership and permission requirements. if user_node: user_paths.insert(0, user_node) for p in user_paths: # Ensure access controls of subdirs from `$user` on down are # restricted to the user. owner_uid = get_owner_uid(p) if user_uid != owner_uid: tty.warn("Expected user {0} to own {1}, but it is owned by {2}" .format(user_uid, p, owner_uid)) spack_src_subdir = os.path.join(path, _source_path_subdir) # When staging into a user-specified directory with `spack stage -p <PATH>`, we need # to ensure the `spack-src` subdirectory exists, as we can't rely on it being # created automatically by spack. It's not clear why this is the case for `spack # stage -p`, but since `mkdirp()` is idempotent, this should not change the behavior # for any other code paths. if not os.path.isdir(spack_src_subdir): mkdirp(spack_src_subdir, mode=stat.S_IRWXU)
def _first_accessible_path(paths): """Find the first path that is accessible, creating it if necessary.""" for path in paths: try: # Ensure the user has access, creating the directory if necessary. if os.path.exists(path): if can_access(path): return path else: # Now create the stage root with the proper group/perms. create_stage_root(path) return path except OSError as e: tty.debug('OSError while checking stage path %s: %s' % ( path, str(e))) return None def _resolve_paths(candidates): """ Resolve candidate paths and make user-related adjustments. Adjustments involve removing extra $user from $tempdir if $tempdir includes $user and appending $user if it is not present in the path. """ temp_path = sup.canonicalize_path('$tempdir') user = getpass.getuser() tmp_has_usr = user in temp_path.split(os.path.sep) paths = [] for path in candidates: # Remove the extra `$user` node from a `$tempdir/$user` entry for # hosts that automatically append `$user` to `$tempdir`. if path.startswith(os.path.join('$tempdir', '$user')) and tmp_has_usr: path = path.replace("/$user", "", 1) # Ensure the path is unique per user. can_path = sup.canonicalize_path(path) if user not in can_path: can_path = os.path.join(can_path, user) paths.append(can_path) return paths # Cached stage path root _stage_root = None
[docs]def get_stage_root(): global _stage_root if _stage_root is None: candidates = spack.config.get('config:build_stage') if isinstance(candidates, string_types): candidates = [candidates] resolved_candidates = _resolve_paths(candidates) path = _first_accessible_path(resolved_candidates) if not path: raise StageError("No accessible stage paths in:", ' '.join(resolved_candidates)) _stage_root = path return _stage_root
def _mirror_roots(): mirrors = spack.config.get('mirrors') return [ sup.substitute_path_variables(root) if root.endswith(os.sep) else sup.substitute_path_variables(root) + os.sep for root in mirrors.values()]
[docs]class Stage(object): """Manages a temporary stage directory for building. A Stage object is a context manager that handles a directory where some source code is downloaded and built before being installed. It handles fetching the source code, either as an archive to be expanded or by checking it out of a repository. A stage's lifecycle looks like this:: with Stage() as stage: # Context manager creates and destroys the # stage directory stage.fetch() # Fetch a source archive into the stage. stage.expand_archive() # Expand the archive into source_path. <install> # Build and install the archive. # (handled by user of Stage) When used as a context manager, the stage is automatically destroyed if no exception is raised by the context. If an excpetion is raised, the stage is left in the filesystem and NOT destroyed, for potential reuse later. You can also use the stage's create/destroy functions manually, like this:: stage = Stage() try: stage.create() # Explicitly create the stage directory. stage.fetch() # Fetch a source archive into the stage. stage.expand_archive() # Expand the archive into source_path. <install> # Build and install the archive. # (handled by user of Stage) finally: stage.destroy() # Explicitly destroy the stage directory. There are two kinds of stages: named and unnamed. Named stages can persist between runs of spack, e.g. if you fetched a tarball but didn't finish building it, you won't have to fetch it again. Unnamed stages are created using standard mkdtemp mechanisms or similar, and are intended to persist for only one run of spack. """ """Shared dict of all stage locks.""" stage_locks = {} # type: Dict[str, spack.util.lock.Lock] """Most staging is managed by Spack. DIYStage is one exception.""" managed_by_spack = True def __init__( self, url_or_fetch_strategy, name=None, mirror_paths=None, keep=False, path=None, lock=True, search_fn=None): """Create a stage object. Parameters: url_or_fetch_strategy URL of the archive to be downloaded into this stage, OR a valid FetchStrategy. name If a name is provided, then this stage is a named stage and will persist between runs (or if you construct another stage object later). If name is not provided, then this stage will be given a unique name automatically. mirror_paths If provided, Stage will search Spack's mirrors for this archive at each of the provided relative mirror paths before using the default fetch strategy. keep By default, when used as a context manager, the Stage is deleted on exit when no exceptions are raised. Pass True to keep the stage intact even if no exceptions are raised. path If provided, the stage path to use for associated builds. lock True if the stage directory file lock is to be used, False otherwise. search_fn The search function that provides the fetch strategy instance. """ # TODO: fetch/stage coupling needs to be reworked -- the logic # TODO: here is convoluted and not modular enough. if isinstance(url_or_fetch_strategy, string_types): self.fetcher = fs.from_url_scheme(url_or_fetch_strategy) elif isinstance(url_or_fetch_strategy, fs.FetchStrategy): self.fetcher = url_or_fetch_strategy else: raise ValueError( "Can't construct Stage without url or fetch strategy") self.fetcher.stage = self # self.fetcher can change with mirrors. self.default_fetcher = self.fetcher self.search_fn = search_fn # used for mirrored archives of repositories. self.skip_checksum_for_mirror = True self.srcdir = None # TODO: This uses a protected member of tempfile, but seemed the only # TODO: way to get a temporary name. It won't be the same as the # TODO: temporary stage area in _stage_root. = name if name is None: = stage_prefix + next(tempfile._get_candidate_names()) self.mirror_paths = mirror_paths # Use the provided path or construct an optionally named stage path. if path is not None: self.path = path else: self.path = os.path.join(get_stage_root(), # Flag to decide whether to delete the stage folder on exit or not self.keep = keep # File lock for the stage directory. We use one file for all # stage locks. See spack.database.Database.prefix_lock for # details on this approach. self._lock = None if lock: if not in Stage.stage_locks: sha1 = hashlib.sha1('utf-8')).digest() lock_id = prefix_bits(sha1, bit_length(sys.maxsize)) stage_lock_path = os.path.join(get_stage_root(), '.lock') tty.debug("Creating stage lock {0}".format( Stage.stage_locks[] = spack.util.lock.Lock( stage_lock_path, lock_id, 1, self._lock = Stage.stage_locks[] # When stages are reused, we need to know whether to re-create # it. This marks whether it has been created/destroyed. self.created = False def __enter__(self): """ Entering a stage context will create the stage directory Returns: self """ if self._lock is not None: self._lock.acquire_write(timeout=60) self.create() return self def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_val, exc_tb): """ Exiting from a stage context will delete the stage directory unless: - it was explicitly requested not to do so - an exception has been raised Args: exc_type: exception type exc_val: exception value exc_tb: exception traceback Returns: Boolean """ # Delete when there are no exceptions, unless asked to keep. if exc_type is None and not self.keep: self.destroy() if self._lock is not None: self._lock.release_write() @property def expected_archive_files(self): """Possible archive file paths.""" paths = [] fnames = [] expanded = True if isinstance(self.default_fetcher, fs.URLFetchStrategy): expanded = self.default_fetcher.expand_archive fnames.append(os.path.basename(self.default_fetcher.url)) if self.mirror_paths: fnames.extend(os.path.basename(x) for x in self.mirror_paths) paths.extend(os.path.join(self.path, f) for f in fnames) if not expanded: # If the download file is not compressed, the "archive" is a # single file placed in Stage.source_path paths.extend(os.path.join(self.source_path, f) for f in fnames) return paths @property def save_filename(self): possible_filenames = self.expected_archive_files if possible_filenames: # This prefers using the URL associated with the default fetcher if # available, so that the fetched resource name matches the remote # name return possible_filenames[0] @property def archive_file(self): """Path to the source archive within this stage directory.""" for path in self.expected_archive_files: if os.path.exists(path): return path else: return None @property def expanded(self): """Returns True if source path expanded; else False.""" return os.path.exists(self.source_path) @property def source_path(self): """Returns the well-known source directory path.""" return os.path.join(self.path, _source_path_subdir)
[docs] def fetch(self, mirror_only=False, err_msg=None): """Retrieves the code or archive Args: mirror_only (bool): only fetch from a mirror err_msg (str or None): the error message to display if all fetchers fail or ``None`` for the default fetch failure message """ fetchers = [] if not mirror_only: fetchers.append(self.default_fetcher) # TODO: move mirror logic out of here and clean it up! # TODO: Or @alalazo may have some ideas about how to use a # TODO: CompositeFetchStrategy here. self.skip_checksum_for_mirror = True if self.mirror_paths: # Join URLs of mirror roots with mirror paths. Because # urljoin() will strip everything past the final '/' in # the root, so we add a '/' if it is not present. mirror_urls = {} for mirror in spack.mirror.MirrorCollection().values(): for rel_path in self.mirror_paths: mirror_url = url_util.join(mirror.fetch_url, rel_path) mirror_urls[mirror_url] = {} if mirror.get_access_pair("fetch") or \ mirror.get_access_token("fetch") or \ mirror.get_profile("fetch"): mirror_urls[mirror_url] = { "access_token": mirror.get_access_token("fetch"), "access_pair": mirror.get_access_pair("fetch"), "access_profile": mirror.get_profile("fetch"), "endpoint_url": mirror.get_endpoint_url("fetch") } # If this archive is normally fetched from a tarball URL, # then use the same digest. `spack mirror` ensures that # the checksum will be the same. digest = None expand = True extension = None if isinstance(self.default_fetcher, fs.URLFetchStrategy): digest = self.default_fetcher.digest expand = self.default_fetcher.expand_archive extension = self.default_fetcher.extension # Have to skip the checksum for things archived from # repositories. How can this be made safer? self.skip_checksum_for_mirror = not bool(digest) # Add URL strategies for all the mirrors with the digest # Insert fetchers in the order that the URLs are provided. for url in reversed(list(mirror_urls.keys())): fetchers.insert( 0, fs.from_url_scheme( url, digest, expand=expand, extension=extension, connection=mirror_urls[url])) if self.default_fetcher.cachable: for rel_path in reversed(list(self.mirror_paths)): cache_fetcher = spack.caches.fetch_cache.fetcher( rel_path, digest, expand=expand, extension=extension) fetchers.insert(0, cache_fetcher) def generate_fetchers(): for fetcher in fetchers: yield fetcher # The search function may be expensive, so wait until now to # call it so the user can stop if a prior fetcher succeeded if self.search_fn and not mirror_only: dynamic_fetchers = self.search_fn() for fetcher in dynamic_fetchers: yield fetcher def print_errors(errors): for msg in errors: tty.debug(msg) errors = [] for fetcher in generate_fetchers(): try: fetcher.stage = self self.fetcher = fetcher self.fetcher.fetch() break except spack.fetch_strategy.NoCacheError: # Don't bother reporting when something is not cached. continue except spack.error.SpackError as e: errors.append('Fetching from {0} failed.'.format(fetcher)) tty.debug(e) continue else: print_errors(errors) self.fetcher = self.default_fetcher default_msg = 'All fetchers failed for {0}'.format( raise fs.FetchError(err_msg or default_msg, None) print_errors(errors)
[docs] def steal_source(self, dest): """Copy the source_path directory in its entirety to directory dest This operation creates/fetches/expands the stage if it is not already, and destroys the stage when it is done.""" if not self.created: self.create() if not self.expanded and not self.archive_file: self.fetch() if not self.expanded: self.expand_archive() if not os.path.isdir(dest): mkdirp(dest) # glob all files and directories in the source path hidden_entries = glob.glob(os.path.join(self.source_path, '.*')) entries = glob.glob(os.path.join(self.source_path, '*')) # Move all files from stage to destination directory # Include hidden files for VCS repo history for entry in hidden_entries + entries: if os.path.isdir(entry): d = os.path.join(dest, os.path.basename(entry)) shutil.copytree(entry, d, symlinks=True) else: shutil.copy2(entry, dest) # copy archive file if we downloaded from url -- replaces for vcs if self.archive_file and os.path.exists(self.archive_file): shutil.copy2(self.archive_file, dest) # remove leftover stage self.destroy()
[docs] def check(self): """Check the downloaded archive against a checksum digest. No-op if this stage checks code out of a repository.""" if self.fetcher is not self.default_fetcher and \ self.skip_checksum_for_mirror: tty.warn("Fetching from mirror without a checksum!", "This package is normally checked out from a version " "control system, but it has been archived on a spack " "mirror. This means we cannot know a checksum for the " "tarball in advance. Be sure that your connection to " "this mirror is secure!") elif spack.config.get('config:checksum'): self.fetcher.check()
[docs] def cache_local(self): self.fetcher, self.mirror_paths.storage_path)
[docs] def cache_mirror(self, mirror, stats): """Perform a fetch if the resource is not already cached Arguments: mirror (spack.caches.MirrorCache): the mirror to cache this Stage's resource in stats (spack.mirror.MirrorStats): this is updated depending on whether the caching operation succeeded or failed """ if isinstance(self.default_fetcher, fs.BundleFetchStrategy): # BundleFetchStrategy has no source to fetch. The associated # fetcher does nothing but the associated stage may still exist. # There is currently no method available on the fetcher to # distinguish this ('cachable' refers to whether the fetcher # refers to a resource with a fixed ID, which is not the same # concept as whether there is anything to fetch at all) so we # must examine the type of the fetcher. return if (mirror.skip_unstable_versions and not fs.stable_target(self.default_fetcher)): return absolute_storage_path = os.path.join( mirror.root, self.mirror_paths.storage_path) if os.path.exists(absolute_storage_path): stats.already_existed(absolute_storage_path) else: self.fetch() self.check() self.fetcher, self.mirror_paths.storage_path) stats.added(absolute_storage_path) mirror.symlink(self.mirror_paths)
[docs] def expand_archive(self): """Changes to the stage directory and attempt to expand the downloaded archive. Fail if the stage is not set up or if the archive is not yet downloaded.""" if not self.expanded: self.fetcher.expand() tty.debug('Created stage in {0}'.format(self.path)) else: tty.debug('Already staged {0} in {1}'.format(, self.path))
[docs] def restage(self): """Removes the expanded archive path if it exists, then re-expands the archive. """ self.fetcher.reset()
[docs] def create(self): """ Ensures the top-level (config:build_stage) directory exists. """ # User has full permissions and group has only read permissions if not os.path.exists(self.path): mkdirp(self.path, mode=stat.S_IRWXU | stat.S_IRGRP | stat.S_IXGRP) elif not os.path.isdir(self.path): os.remove(self.path) mkdirp(self.path, mode=stat.S_IRWXU | stat.S_IRGRP | stat.S_IXGRP) # Make sure we can actually do something with the stage we made. ensure_access(self.path) self.created = True
[docs] def destroy(self): """Removes this stage directory.""" remove_linked_tree(self.path) # Make sure we don't end up in a removed directory try: os.getcwd() except OSError as e: tty.debug(e) os.chdir(os.path.dirname(self.path)) # mark as destroyed self.created = False
[docs]class ResourceStage(Stage): def __init__(self, url_or_fetch_strategy, root, resource, **kwargs): super(ResourceStage, self).__init__(url_or_fetch_strategy, **kwargs) self.root_stage = root self.resource = resource
[docs] def restage(self): super(ResourceStage, self).restage() self._add_to_root_stage()
[docs] def expand_archive(self): super(ResourceStage, self).expand_archive() self._add_to_root_stage()
def _add_to_root_stage(self): """ Move the extracted resource to the root stage (according to placement). """ root_stage = self.root_stage resource = self.resource if resource.placement: placement = resource.placement elif self.srcdir: placement = self.srcdir else: placement = self.source_path if not isinstance(placement, dict): placement = {'': placement} target_path = os.path.join( root_stage.source_path, resource.destination) try: os.makedirs(target_path) except OSError as err: tty.debug(err) if err.errno == errno.EEXIST and os.path.isdir(target_path): pass else: raise for key, value in iteritems(placement): destination_path = os.path.join(target_path, value) source_path = os.path.join(self.source_path, key) if not os.path.exists(destination_path):'Moving resource stage\n\tsource: ' '{stage}\n\tdestination: {destination}'.format( stage=source_path, destination=destination_path )) src = os.path.realpath(source_path) if os.path.isdir(src): install_tree(src, destination_path) else: install(src, destination_path)
[docs]class StageComposite(pattern.Composite): """Composite for Stage type objects. The first item in this composite is considered to be the root package, and operations that return a value are forwarded to it.""" # # __enter__ and __exit__ delegate to all stages in the composite. # def __init__(self): super(StageComposite, self).__init__([ 'fetch', 'create', 'created', 'check', 'expand_archive', 'restage', 'destroy', 'cache_local', 'cache_mirror', 'steal_source', 'managed_by_spack']) def __enter__(self): for item in self: item.__enter__() return self def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_val, exc_tb): for item in reversed(self): item.keep = getattr(self, 'keep', False) item.__exit__(exc_type, exc_val, exc_tb) # # Below functions act only on the *first* stage in the composite. # @property def source_path(self): return self[0].source_path @property def expanded(self): return self[0].expanded @property def path(self): return self[0].path @property def archive_file(self): return self[0].archive_file
[docs]class DIYStage(object): """ Simple class that allows any directory to be a spack stage. Consequently, it does not expect or require that the source path adhere to the standard directory naming convention. """ """DIY staging is, by definition, not managed by Spack.""" managed_by_spack = False def __init__(self, path): if path is None: raise ValueError("Cannot construct DIYStage without a path.") elif not os.path.isdir(path): raise StagePathError("The stage path directory does not exist:", path) self.archive_file = None self.path = path self.source_path = path self.created = True # DIY stages do nothing as context managers. def __enter__(self): pass def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_val, exc_tb): pass
[docs] def fetch(self, *args, **kwargs): tty.debug('No need to fetch for DIY.')
[docs] def check(self): tty.debug('No checksum needed for DIY.')
[docs] def expand_archive(self): tty.debug('Using source directory: {0}'.format(self.source_path))
@property def expanded(self): """Returns True since the source_path must exist.""" return True
[docs] def restage(self): raise RestageError("Cannot restage a DIY stage.")
[docs] def create(self): self.created = True
[docs] def destroy(self): # No need to destroy DIY stage. pass
[docs] def cache_local(self): tty.debug('Sources for DIY stages are not cached')
[docs]def ensure_access(file): """Ensure we can access a directory and die with an error if we can't.""" if not can_access(file): tty.die("Insufficient permissions for %s" % file)
[docs]def purge(): """Remove all build directories in the top-level stage path.""" root = get_stage_root() if os.path.isdir(root): for stage_dir in os.listdir(root): if stage_dir.startswith(stage_prefix) or stage_dir == '.lock': stage_path = os.path.join(root, stage_dir) if os.path.isdir(stage_path): remove_linked_tree(stage_path) else: os.remove(stage_path)
[docs]def get_checksums_for_versions(url_dict, name, **kwargs): """Fetches and checksums archives from URLs. This function is called by both ``spack checksum`` and ``spack create``. The ``first_stage_function`` argument allows the caller to inspect the first downloaded archive, e.g., to determine the build system. Args: url_dict (dict): A dictionary of the form: version -> URL name (str): The name of the package first_stage_function (typing.Callable): function that takes a Stage and a URL; this is run on the stage of the first URL downloaded keep_stage (bool): whether to keep staging area when command completes batch (bool): whether to ask user how many versions to fetch (false) or fetch all versions (true) latest (bool): whether to take the latest version (true) or all (false) fetch_options (dict): Options used for the fetcher (such as timeout or cookies) Returns: (str): A multi-line string containing versions and corresponding hashes """ batch = kwargs.get('batch', False) fetch_options = kwargs.get('fetch_options', None) first_stage_function = kwargs.get('first_stage_function', None) keep_stage = kwargs.get('keep_stage', False) latest = kwargs.get('latest', False) sorted_versions = sorted(url_dict.keys(), reverse=True) if latest: sorted_versions = sorted_versions[:1] # Find length of longest string in the list for padding max_len = max(len(str(v)) for v in sorted_versions) num_ver = len(sorted_versions) tty.msg('Found {0} version{1} of {2}:'.format( num_ver, '' if num_ver == 1 else 's', name), '', *llnl.util.lang.elide_list( ['{0:{1}} {2}'.format(str(v), max_len, url_dict[v]) for v in sorted_versions])) print() if batch or latest: archives_to_fetch = len(sorted_versions) else: archives_to_fetch = tty.get_number( "How many would you like to checksum?", default=1, abort='q') if not archives_to_fetch: tty.die("Aborted.") versions = sorted_versions[:archives_to_fetch] urls = [url_dict[v] for v in versions] tty.debug('Downloading...') version_hashes = [] i = 0 errors = [] for url, version in zip(urls, versions): # Wheels should not be expanded during staging expand_arg = '' if url.endswith('.whl') or '.whl#' in url: expand_arg = ', expand=False' try: if fetch_options: url_or_fs = fs.URLFetchStrategy( url, fetch_options=fetch_options) else: url_or_fs = url with Stage(url_or_fs, keep=keep_stage) as stage: # Fetch the archive stage.fetch() if i == 0 and first_stage_function: # Only run first_stage_function the first time, # no need to run it every time first_stage_function(stage, url) # Checksum the archive and add it to the list version_hashes.append((version, spack.util.crypto.checksum( hashlib.sha256, stage.archive_file))) i += 1 except FailedDownloadError: errors.append('Failed to fetch {0}'.format(url)) except Exception as e: tty.msg('Something failed on {0}, skipping. ({1})'.format(url, e)) for msg in errors: tty.debug(msg) if not version_hashes: tty.die("Could not fetch any versions for {0}".format(name)) # Find length of longest string in the list for padding max_len = max(len(str(v)) for v, h in version_hashes) # Generate the version directives to put in a version_lines = "\n".join([ " version('{0}', {1}sha256='{2}'{3})".format( v, ' ' * (max_len - len(str(v))), h, expand_arg) for v, h in version_hashes ]) num_hash = len(version_hashes) tty.debug('Checksummed {0} version{1} of {2}:'.format( num_hash, '' if num_hash == 1 else 's', name)) return version_lines
[docs]class StageError(spack.error.SpackError): """"Superclass for all errors encountered during staging."""
[docs]class StagePathError(StageError): """"Error encountered with stage path."""
[docs]class RestageError(StageError): """"Error encountered during restaging."""
[docs]class VersionFetchError(StageError): """Raised when we can't determine a URL to fetch a package."""
# Keep this in namespace for convenience FailedDownloadError = fs.FailedDownloadError